Saturday, November 21, 2020

Major chemical compounds in rosemary leaves

Rosemarinus officinalis L. is a spice and medicinal herb an evergreen perennial aromatic shrub belonging to the family Labiatae, commonly called Rosemary, native to the north and south coasts of the Mediterranean Sea.

Of the natural antioxidants, rosemary has been widely accepted as one of the spices with the highest antioxidant activity. Rosemary contains some antioxidant phenolics that have been shown to provide a defense against oxidative stress from oxidizing agents and free radicals.

Rosemary leaves have been used in food preservation, because they prevent oxidation and microbial contamination. Rosemary extract could be useful for replacing or even decreasing synthetic antioxidants in foods.

A wealth of studies demonstrated antioxidant, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, hypoglycemic and hypolipidimic activities of rosemary. Rosemary essential oil is also used as an antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer agent.

The polyphenolic profile of rosemary plant is characterized by the presence of carnosic acid, carnosol, rosmarinic acid and hesperidin, as major components.

Many compounds have been isolated from rosemary, including flavones, diterpenes, steroids, and triterpenes. Of these, Rosemary leaves the antioxidant activity of rosemary extracts has been primarily related to two phenolic diterpenes: carnosic acid and carnosol.

The anti-inflammatory activity of rosemary has been attributed to the presence of carnosol and carnosic, rosmarinic, ursolic, oleanolic, and micromeric acids, which act synergistically.

The main compounds responsible for the antimicrobial activity are α-pinene, bornyl acetate, camphor and 1,8-cineole.
Major chemical compounds in rosemary leaves

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